Most heating and cooling systems, including forced air heating systems, do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. Outdoor air enters and leaves a house by:
- Natural ventilation, such as through open windows and doors.
- Infiltration, a process by which outdoor air flows into the house through openings, joints and cracks in walls, floors and ceilings, and around windows and doors.
- Mechanical means, such as through outdoor air intakes associated with the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system; outdoor-vented fans that intermittently remove air from a single room, such as bathrooms and kitchens.